Bilqi Forum  

Geri git   Bilqi Forum > > >

ÖDEVLERİNİZİ BULMAKTA ZORLANIYOMUSUNUZ!

SORUN ANINDA CEVAPLIYALIM.

TÜM SORULARINIZA ANINDA CEVAP VERİLECEKTİR !

Sitemize Üye Olmadan Konulara Cevap Yazabilir Ayrıca Soru Cevap Bölümüne Konu Açabilirsiniz !

Yeni Konu aç Cevapla
 
Seçenekler Stil
Alt 04-11-2008, 20:02   #1
Yaso
Operator
 
Yaso - ait Kullanıcı Resmi (Avatar)
 
Üyelik tarihi: Jan 2008
Mesajlar: 32.967
Tecrübe Puanı: 1000
Yaso has a reputation beyond reputeYaso has a reputation beyond reputeYaso has a reputation beyond reputeYaso has a reputation beyond reputeYaso has a reputation beyond reputeYaso has a reputation beyond reputeYaso has a reputation beyond reputeYaso has a reputation beyond reputeYaso has a reputation beyond reputeYaso has a reputation beyond reputeYaso has a reputation beyond repute
Standart LiNKING WORDS

LiNKING WORDS

While combining two or more sentences you’ll need to use linking words.
To produce longer sentences and to show proper relationship between similaar or related ideas in the same sentence, we should use linking words.

Linking words are grouped into sections such as;
Coordinating conjuctions:And,or,nor,but,far,so,yet,because,so as to,due to(the fact that)
Correlative conjuctions:Either…or,neither…,nor,not only…but also,both…and,such that,so that
Conjuctive adverbs:However,moreover,hence,otherwise,neverthel ess,
therefore,then,still,also,consequently,afterward,o n the contrary,besides,thus,later(on),in fact,as a result,while,whereas,despide,in spite of,although,even though,on the other hand,after,before,when,as,by,by the time%2 il,since,as soon as,once,as/so long as,whenever,every time,in the first time,the last time,the next time

Adverb conjuctives are grouped into 4 parts.These are;

Time:After,before,when,while,as,by the time(that),since%2 ilas soon as,whenever,every time(that),the first time(that),the last time(that),the next time(that),afterward,later on

Cause and effect:Because,since,now that,as,so(that),hence,therefore,
consequently,as a result,such that,so that,as/so long as

Opposition:Even though,although,though,whereas,while,on the contrary,
on the other hand,despite,in spite of,however,still,nevertheless

Condition:If,unless,only if,whether or not,even if,otherwise,providing(that),provided(that),
in case(that),in the event(that)
Additial information:Moreover,furthermore,also,infact,besid e
COORDINATING CONJUCTIONS

These conjuctions connect structures that are the same.

They connect single words:

(2) Nouns............................................. ...Men and women are in that class.
(2) Adjectives........................................ .My parent were poor but happy.
(2) Verbs............................................. ....Last night I was sitting and thinking
about you.
(2) Objects........................................... ...This typewriter is for the secretary
but not (for) the students.
(2) Infinitives....................................... ...I have to write and (to) type this paper tonight.

They also connect complete sentences:

a. I was going to call you last night, but my roommate was on the phone for three hours.
b. I was too tired to wait, so I went to bed.

I love you, but I can’t marry you. I love you but can’t marry you.

Sometimes a comma is not necessary if the sentences are short, but it is always safe to add the comma.

Meaning

AND shows addition.

The phone rang, and someone knocked on the door.

‘And’ sometimes shows cause and result.

The phone rang, and the baby woke up.

OR, NOR express an alternative or choice.

You can stay home and study for the exam, or you can go out and enjoy yourself.
You don’t have to stay home, nor do you have to study.

Sometimes ‘or’ express a condition.

I have to study for exam, or I will fail the course.(If I don’t study for the exam, I will fail the course.)

Often the word ‘else’ is used with ‘or’ to express a condition.

I have to study for the exam, or else I will fail it.

NOTE: ‘Nor’ usually connects only independent clauses.

After ‘Nor’ the question word order is used.

I don’t speak French, nor do I write it.

I haven’t done my writing assignment, nor have I done the reading one.

Mrs. Peerson is not here today, nor is Mr. Ray.

BUT, YET show contrast.

Dr. Jones was very sick, but he taught his class.

His voice was very weak, yet the students understood him.

The words ‘but’ and ‘yet’ are often used with ‘not.’

His voice was very week but not inaudible.

He spoke slowly yet not very clearly.

FOR introduces a cause or reason.

Dr. Jones couldn’t lecture for the entire hour, for he had a sore throat.

In informal speech ‘because’ is more common than ‘for.’

Due to the sore throat, Dr. Jones couldn’t lecture for the entire hour.

Dr. Jones couldn’t lecture for the entire hour because he had a sore throat.

NOTE: ‘For’ only connects independent clauses.

SO introduces a result.

I’ve been studying diligently all year, so I’m going to take a vacation during the summer quarter.

NOTE: ‘So’ usually connects only independent clauses.

REMEMBER:

These words have different meanings, so they show different
relationships between the ideas in two sentences. However, the relationship is always logical: it make sense.Look at the following sentence.

The grammar test on the tenses was very long, but it took a long time to finish.

This sentence has a subject and a verb in each independent clause.
There is a comma before the conjunction.Why does the sentence sound ‘funny’?

The word ‘but’ shows contrast, so after it we need a statement that
contrasts with the first statement. ‘It took a long time to finish’ is not contrast to the first sentence.We need another conjunction or a slightly different sentence.

The grammar test on tenses was very long, so it took a long time to finish.

The grammar test on tenses was very long ,but it didn’t take a long time to finish.








CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

Correlatives are conjunctions with two parts.

1. Complete sentences (independent clauses)

a. Either I will come, or I will call you

b. Neither am I rich, nor am I poor.

c. Not only is bob here, but his roommates are also here


2. Similar structures: words and phrases of the same kind

a. I will either come or call you. (two verbs)

b. I am neither rich nor poor. (two adjectives)

c. Not only Bob but also his roommates are here.
(two nouns)

Either…Or

Either…or means ‘one or the other.’ It indicates a choice or alternative.

Connecting Two Complete Sentences

1. You must tell the truth. You must go jail.

Either you must tell the truth, or you must so to jail.

2. A person is honest. A person is dishonest.

Either one is honest, or one is dishonest.

3. I will see you at home. I will see you in jail.

Either I will see you at home,or I will see you at jail.


4. I can call your father. I can call your mother.

Either I can call your father, or I can call your mother.

5. You tell the truth. I will report you to the police

Either you tell the truth, or I will report you to the police.

Connecting Similar Structures

1. You must tell the truth. You must go to jail.

You must either tell the truth, or go to jail. (two verb phrases)

2. A person is honest. A person is dishonest.

A person is either honest or dishonest. (two adjectives)

3. I will see you at home. I will see you in jail.

I will see you either at home or in jail. (two prepositional phrases)

4. I can call your father. I can call your mother.

I can call either your father or your mother. (two noun objects)

5. You tell the truth. I will report you to the police.

NOTE: The subjects of the two sentences are different in sentence 5, so the two verb phrases cannot be connected.


Neither…Nor

Neither…nor means ‘not one or the other.’

Connecting Two Complete Sentences

1. Money is not important to me. Success is not important to me.

Neither is money important to me, nor is success important to me.

2. I don’t want fortune. I don’t want fame.

Neither do I want fortune, nor do I want fame.

3. The director is not here. His secretary is not here.

Neither is the director here, nor is his secretary.

4. Your son isn’t outside, nor is he inside.

Neither is your son outside , nor is he inside.

5. This coffee is not good. It isn’t hot.

Neither is this coffee good, nor is it hot.

6. Sue has not arrived. She has not called.

Neither has Sue arrived , nor has she called.

NOTE: When connecting two complete sentences (independent clauses) , after the words ‘neither’ and ‘nor’ the sentence is in the form of a question. But do not use a question mark.

1. is money important to me is success important to me

2. do I want fortune do I want fame

3. has Sue arrived has she called

Connecting Similar Structures

1. Money is not important to me. Success is not important to me.

Neither money nor success is important to me. (two noun subjects)

2. I don’t want fortune. I don’t want fame.

I want neither fortune nor fame. (two noun objects)



3. This coffee isn’t good. it isn’t hot

This coffee is neither good nor hot. (two adjectives)

4. Your son isn’t outside. he isn’t inside.

Your son is neither outside nor inside. (two adverbs)

5. Sue has not arrived. She has not called.

Sue has neither arrived nor called. (two verbs)

Both…And

This correlative is usually used to connect only words an phrases that are
similar in structure. I is rarely used to connect complete sentences.

Connecting Similar Structures

1. Our grammar teacher is sick today. Our reading teacher is sick today.

Both our grammar teacher and our reading teacher are sick today. (two noun subjects)

2. I have been having trouble with grammar. I have been having trouble with reading.

I have been having trouble with both grammar and reading. (two noun objects)

3. Bob jogs every morning. He does push-ups every morning.

Bob both jogs and push-ups every morning.

4. There is more food on the table. There is more food in the refrigerator.

There is more food both on the table and in the refrigerator.





CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

Like the coordinating conjunctions, these words also join complete sentences (independent clauses) and express a logical relationship between the ideas in the sentences.
However, conjunctive adverbs cannot join single words, phrases , and incomplete sentences (dependent clauses).

Meaning

These words show a contrast the ideas in the sentences.

However Still
Nevertheless On the contrary

Studies show that cigarette smoking is dangerous to one’s health; however, millions of people continue to smoke.

; nevertheless , millions of people continue to smoke.

;still, millions of people continue to smoke.

The phrase ‘on the contrary’ also indicates contrast but in a slightly
different way. Therefore, it is not always possible to use this expression in place of ‘however,’ ‘nevertheless,’ and ‘still.’

The phrase ‘on the contrary’ usually connects two sentences that express
ideas that are clearly the opposite of one another.

Ex: Our last exam wasn’t difficult; on the contrary, it was easy.

The teacher wasn’t angry with the test scores; on the contrary, she was
Very happy with them.

The word ‘however’ cannot be used in the sentences above. But in some
sentences either ‘on the contrary’ or ‘however’ is possible.

Ex: A good student usually gets good grades; however , a poor student
; on the contrary
get poor grades.


These words give additional information. They add to the idea in the first
sentence.

Moreover Also In fact
Furthermore Besides

‘In fact’ also adds emphasis to idea in the first sentence.

Bill passed all his exams; in fact, he graduated with honors.

His biology professor encouraged him to go to graduated school; moreover, he nominated Bill for a graduate scholarship.

These words give a cause-result relationship. The second sentence gives
Result the idea in the first sentence.

Hence Consequently As a result
Therefore Thus Such that
So that

I can’t speak French very well; therefore, I didn’t enjoy my trip to France.

Many French people didn’t understand English very well; as a result, I used a lot of gestures.

This word expresses a condition.

Otherwise

; if we don’t,
We must find solution to problem of pollution; otherwise, we may all be wearing gas masks one day.

; if we don’t,
We must clean up our rivers and lakes; otherwise, the fish will die.

; if we don’t
Don’t be absent from class; otherwise, you will miss the review.



The following words show a time sequence.

Then Afterward Later (on)

The student demonstrators destroyed the student union; then they
marched toward the library.

The campus police asked them to go home; afterward the police began
to arrest some of the demonstrators.

At first, I was going to join the demonstration; later on I changed my
mind.































Inglish termwork

Prepared by: ılkay ısgörener

The course’s teacher:
Mıne matur

Number :98


Class :9/d


Be token subject: lınkıng words





Sources


Book’s name: Communicate What You Mean


Writer: Carroll Washington Pollock


Published: Prentice Hall Regents





Book’s name: Understanding And using English Grammer


Writer: Betty Schrampfer Azar

Published: Prentice Hall Regents



















INDEX


Introduction:………….1

Coordinating Conjunctions:…………2

Correlative Conjunctions:…………3

Conjunctive Adverbs:…………9
Yaso isimli Üye şimdilik offline konumundadır   Alıntı ile Cevapla
Cevapla

Bookmarks


Konuyu Toplam 1 Üye okuyor. (0 Kayıtlı üye ve 1 Misafir)
 
Seçenekler
Stil

Yetkileriniz
Sizin Yeni Konu Acma Yetkiniz var yok
Sizin Konu Yanıtlama Yetkiniz var
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is Açık
Smileler Açık
[IMG] Kodları Açık
HTML-KodlarıKapalı

Gitmek istediğiniz klasörü seçiniz


Şu Anki Saat: 12:00


İçerik sağlayıcı paylaşım sitelerinden biri olan Bilqi.com Forum Adresimizde T.C.K 20.ci Madde ve 5651 Sayılı Kanun'un 4.cü maddesinin (2).ci fıkrasına göre TÜM ÜYELERİMİZ yaptıkları paylaşımlardan sorumludur. bilqi.com hakkında yapılacak tüm hukuksal Şikayetler doganinternet@hotmail.com ve streetken27@gmail.com dan iletişime geçilmesi halinde ilgili kanunlar ve yönetmelikler çerçevesinde en geç 1 (Bir) Hafta içerisinde bilqi.com yönetimi olarak tarafımızdan gereken işlemler yapılacak ve size dönüş yapacaktır.
Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.4
Copyright ©2000 - 2017, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.
Search Engine Optimisation provided by DragonByte SEO v2.0.36 (Lite) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2017 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

Android Rom

Android Oyunlar

Android samsung htc

Samsung Htc

Nokia Windows