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Alt 04-11-2008, 20:54   #1
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Standart Chapter 3

Chapter 3
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT:
THE CONSTRAINTS
Learning Objectives
You should learn to:
– Differentiate the symbolic from the omnipotent view of management
– Define organizational culture
– Identify the seven dimensions that make up an organization’s culture and how these dimensions reflect the organization’s personality
– Explain how cultures can be strong or weak
– Describe the various ways that employees learn culture
– Explain how culture constrains managers
– Describe the various components in an organization’s specific and general environments
– Contrast certain and uncertain environments
– Identify the various stakeholders with whom managers have to deal
– Clarify how managers manage relationships with external stakeholders


The Manager: Omnipotent Or Symbolic?
Omnipotent View of Management
– managers are directly responsible for an organization’s success
• if the organization performs poorly, managers will be held accountable
Symbolic View of Management
– the actual part that managers play in organizational success or failure is minimal
– managers must create meaning out of randomness, confusion, and ambiguity
Reality Suggests a Synthesis
– managers are neither helpless nor all powerful



The Organization’s Culture
What is Organizational Culture?
– A system of shared meaning and beliefs held by organizational members that determines, in large degree, how they act
• a common perception
• individuals describe organizational culture in similar terms
• a descriptive term
– composite picture of organizational culture may be derived from seven dimensions
• organization’s personality often shaped by one of these dimensions
EXHIBIT 3.2: DIMENTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

Strong Versus Weak Cultures
– in strong cultures, the key values are deeply held and widely shared
– strong cultures have greater influence on employees than do weak cultures
– employees more committed to organizations with strong cultures
– strong cultures are associated with high organizational performance
– most organizations have moderate to strong cultures


The Source of Culture
– usually reflects the vision or mission of the founder
• founders project image of what the organization should be
How Employees Learn Culture
– Stories - a narrative of significant events or people
– Rituals - repetitive sequences of activities
– Material symbols – essential in creating an
organization’s personality.
– Language - identifies members of a culture
• organizations develop unique terminology or jargon



How Culture Affects Managers
– establishes appropriate managerial behavior
– constrains decision making in all management functions
• Planning - degree of risk that plans should contain
– how much environmental scanning is necessary
• Organizing - degree of autonomy given to employees
– degree of interdepartmental interaction
• Leading - degree of concern for job satisfaction
– what leadership styles are appropriate
• Controlling - reliance on external or internal controls
– what performance criteria to use




The External Environment
The Environment
Defining the External Environment
– External environment - forces and institutions outside the organization that may affect organizational performance
• Specific environment - includes those constituencies that have a direct and immediate impact on managers’ decisions and actions
– directly relevant to goal achievement
– is unique to each organization, including:
» customers - absorb organization’s output
» suppliers - provide material and equipment
» competitors - influence of Internet
» pressure groups - special-interest groups

• General environment - includes the broad conditions that may affect organizations
– Economic conditions - interest rates, changes in disposable income, and stage of the business cycle
– Legal conditions - federal, state, and local regulation
» substantial expense entailed to meet regulations
» limit choices available to organizations
– Political conditions - general stability of country
» attitudes of governmental officials toward business
– Sociocultural conditions - expectations of society
» values, customs, and tastes
– Demographic conditions - trends in the physical characteristics of a population
» e.g., “baby boomers” influential because of their numbers
» e.g., “digital” or “net” generation - immersion and acceptance of computers
– Technological conditions - most rapidly changing aspect of the general environment
» changing the ways that organizations are structured
» information is the basis of important competitive advantages
– Global conditions - increasing number of global competitors and consumer markets
» major factor affecting organizations



How the Environment Affects Managers
– Assessing environmental uncertainty - determined by:
• degree of unpredictable change
– dynamic - frequent change
– stable - minimal change
• environmental complexity
– the number of components in the environment
– amount of information available or required about those components
• managers attempt to minimize uncertainty


EXHIBIT 3.7: ENVIRONMENTAL UNCERTAINTY MATRIX

Stakeholder Relationship Management
– Who are stakeholders?
• any constituencies that are affected by the organization’s decisions and actions
– include internal and external groups
– can influence the organization

– Why is stakeholder relationship management important?
• the more secure the relationship, the more influence managers will have over organizational outcomes
• it’s the “right” thing to do

EXHIBIT 3.8: ORGANIZATIONAL STAKEHOLDERS


– How can these relationships be managed?
• four steps
– identify the stakeholders
– determine real and potential concerns of each stakeholder group
– determine whether stakeholder is critical
– determine specific approach to manage the relationship
• approach to a stakeholder group based on the importance of the group and the degree of environmental uncertainty
EXHIBIT 3.9: MANAGING STAKEHOLDER RELATIONSHIPS
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