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Alt 04-11-2008, 21:10   #1
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Standart This year my term work is about inventions up to now and the inventions of the 20th c

This year my term work is about inventions up to now and the inventions of the 20th century.
I think, sometimes everybody thinks if the objects, which makes our life easy, were not invented, how the earth like? Some older persons, like our grandparents are sometimes tell that “ You are very lucky .In past, inspite of being rich, we hadn’t have anything like now. Now, you have whatever you want. You can watch TV, you can use your vehicles, and you can communicate too fast by phones, computers. You are toooo Lucky!!!”
At prehistoric ages, humanbeing had started to make inventions. I think, the most useful inventions were invented in that period, like fire and wheel. Sometimes inventions brings new ones with them. For example; the inventors invented the lens. After that invention, scientists use lenses on telescopes, binoculars, eyeglasses, and projectors …
If I ask you what are the famous and useful inventions, I think your answer is about T.V., radio, computer, phones, … like these thinks. But not only they are useful. Someone is hidden in our mind. But what are they? Let’s see!

POTTERY (7,900 B.C.)
Usually we eat our meal in plates that made from pottery and some vases that have art value are made from pottery. Pottery has been found in the remains of every ancient civilization. The oldest known piece of pottery was found in China and dates back to 7,900 B.C. that's almost 10,000 years ago! We eat our meal with an object that was 10,000 years old!
The first pots were large bowls, formed by taking a lump of clay and making a bowl shape. Pottery doesn't just include pots, but anything made from clay that can hold things, such as jugs, vases and cups. Pottery was used to hold water, milk, seeds and grains.
Later, people learned to mix different clays together to make stronger pottery and to put the pottery in a fire oven so the clay would harden faster. The potter's wheel was invented in China around 3,100 B.C. The wheel spins clay like a top. It allowed people to make pottery much more quickly and make shapes that were perfectly symmetrical - bowls that were really round, rather than lumpy or uneven.
Pottery is not only considered one of the first inventions but also one of the first art forms. Most types of pottery have been painted with figures or designs.

WHEEL (3200-3500 B.C.)

At first humanbeing made wheels with some corners like that;
After using that wheel for a long period, the corners of the wheel started to disappear and became round shaped. They used wheels to carry heavy things like big meat pieces. With the help of the time, people makes different types of wheels like gears, tires for vehicles, etc.
The invention of the wheel is considered to be one of the great milestones in the history of humanity. Many have thought the wheel essential to the formulation of both ancient and modern civilizations. Although modern archaeologists have moderated this earlier view, it is generally agreed that the wheel is vital to most societies. We don't know whom to thank for the wheel, but think of what the world would be like without it. No bicycles. No roller-blades, No gears, no shopping carts, No cars...buses or trains. Days of walking to get from one place to another!...

Swimming is one of the natural instincts of the humanbeing. At summers everybody wants to swim in see or in a pool. In cold weathers or in a place where has no shore(like (Ankara), people have to swim in the pools. For that reason, humanbeing want to solve this problem and build swimming pools. Archaeologists have found evidence of swimming as an organized activity as far back as 2500 B.C. in Egypt. It was also popular in ancient Greece, Rome and Assyria. Credit for building the first heated swimming pool goes to Maecenas of Rome in the first century BC. But most people continued to do their swimming in lakes, rivers and other natural bodies of water until the middle of the 19th century. By 1837, London, England had six indoor pools with diving boards. When the modern-day Olympic Games began in 1896, swimming races were among the original events, and the popularity of swimming began to spread.

"Specs" or eyeglasses took a long time to evolve into the "One-Hour" lenses found today. The Chinese first used colored glasses as a fashion accessory that supposedly gave magical powers but didn't improve sight. Roger Bacon, a medieval inventor, discovered the magnifying properties of lenses in 1262, arguing that glasses could be used to help you see. Twenty years later in Florence, Italy, inventor Alessandro di Spina made the first pair of working, fashionable glasses.
While these glasses worked, scientists didn't understand how the glasses helped the eye to see. They thought that the eye sent out light that reflected like a mirror on whatever a person was looking at; then the light came back to the eye and people could see! In 1604, Johannes Kepler figured out how glasses work. He named the parts of the eye and described how the eye actually focuses with the help of lenses.
Inventors continued to improve on glasses (and still do today, in the fields of optometry and optics). In 1784 Ben Franklin created the bifocals that sit on his face in his famous portraits. Forty years later, in 1827 George Airy made circle-shaped glasses to correct astigmatism (an eye defect that makes things look blurry). These inventions were a far cry from the lightweight glasses and contact lenses used today. But those are other inventions.

ABACUS (1200 AD)
Let’s solve that problem. “ 7 + 2 =? ” In primary school children are solving these problems with their fingers. The human hand is certainly our oldest counting tool. But hands are limited calculators, since they only have ten fingers.
In order to quickly count to 10, ancient number-lovers came up with a counting board with grooves in it, where pebbles were placed. Just sliding the pebbles along the grooves from one side of the board to the other made counting much easier, and freed one hand to do other work. The Salamis tablet is the oldest known counting board. It was used by the Babylonians over 2,000 years ago, around 300 B.C. It was discovered in 1899 on the island of Salamis.
But people wanted to increase the ease and speed of counting, so the first real abacus evolved in 1200A.D. in China. It was called suan-pan. It was made of wood and had a frame of rods with beads strung on them.
Around 1600 A.D. the abacus was brought to Japan by way of Korea. Early Christians later brought the abacus through Russia to Europe.
In a different part of the world, Mesoamerica (Mexico and Central America), an abacus made from kernels of maize threaded through strings and mounted on a wooden frame was used around 900-1000 A.D.
Different cultures have interesting variations of the abacus. The Chinese abacus was designed with 13 columns with 2 beads on top (representing heaven) and 5 beads below (representing earth). The Japanese abacus had 21 columns, with 1 bead on top and 4 beads below. The Russian Abacus has 10 columns with 10 beads on each.
The ingenious abacus is still used to teach math. A two-day computing contest was held in 1946 between Kiyoshu Matzukai, using an abacus, and an electric calculator - and the abacus won!

Until the printing press was invented in the 1450's, every book had to be hand-written. A printing press is a machine that automates the process of creating books. The press swipes ink across a raised surface and presses it against sheets of paper. Johannes Gutenberg, a businessman from Germany, is said to have invented the printing press in the early 1450's.
For many centuries, the Catholic Church was producing most of the books that were available at the time, by hand-copying each one. But then things began to change. Paper was developed and proved to be a good alternative to the animal skin -- or "vellum" as it was called -- that had been available until then. As well, more and more people were learning to read, so the demand for books increased. The scribes simply could not keep up.
Gutenberg's machine used individual letters, hand-carved out of metal, that could be removed and re-positioned for each page in a book. Then he would sweep ink over the letters and "press" them on to the paper.
Sometime around 1450, Gutenberg succeeding in building his first printing press and began printing bibles in Latin. Unfortunately, they were very expensive: the first bible that Gutenberg produced sold for 30 florins each, or about three years' salary. But the invention was an instant hit and soon many people were printing, and the price of books came down. Lots of people were able to buy them, and this forever changed the way people were able to learn.
Today, the printing press is still being used, although the technology of the last 20 years is slowly making the printing press obsolete. But there remain a few daily newspapers that still use the basic design that Gutenberg imagined over 500 years ago.

Microbes. A very small living creatures that makes us ill. There is one way to disinfection. Watch its activities and find the right . Until 15th century scientists were searching ways to see microbic creatures. Single-lens microscopes were used as early as the mid-15th century, but Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (generally pronounced "fan LAY-ven-hook") developed the actual prototype of the modern multiple-lens microscope in 1674.

They're kind of a mixed blessing, especially when it's time for your "booster" shots. But when England's Dr. Edward Jenner first came up with the idea of injecting a healthy person with a mild disease called "cowpox" to protect them against a much lier disease called "smallpox," he created a way to protect future generations from many infectious diseases, from measles to polio and more. And thanks to a world-wide campaign of vaccinations, smallpox has been virtually eradicated (destroyed) around the world.

I think, there is only one thing that pauses time, camera. Many inventors worked to find a way of recording an image permanently. But Niepce was the first to take what we would now call a photograph. He set up a camera in the window of his home, left it there for most of the day, and wound up with a grainy, blurry photograph of the rooftops nearby. One photograph took several hours. Imagine how tired you could get of standing perfectly still and saying "Cheese."

(1790 - 1840)
Imagine a world where all your clothes had to be sewn by hand! That's how things were until the 1800s, when a number of inventors began building mechanical sewing machines. Until that time, sewing was a difficult, time-consuming job -- and hard on the hands. Plans for sewing machines were patented by many inventors, including Thomas Saint in England in 1790, Thomas Stone and James Henderson in France in 1804, and Barthelemy Thimonnier in 1830, also in France -- who produced the first practical, commercial sewing machine -- made almost entirely out of wood. But during the French Revolution, Thimonnier's shop was attacked by a group of tailors who thought the machine would put them out of business, and they destroyed everything.
A number of American inventors furthered the design during the 1800s, but perhaps the best known is Massachusetts’s farmer Elias Howe, who built a machine in 1844. Despite his patents, Howe's design was produced by a number of other manufacturers, including Issac Singer (who formed the Singer Sewing Machines, which is still in operation). Both Howe and Singer became multi-millionaires, and the world got... more clothes!

The first traffic light, A pair of alternating red and green gas lamps was installed outside Britain's Houses of Parliament in that year to keep the large number of horse-drawn carriages in the area from colliding. Unfortunately, it blew up, a passing police officer. That discouraged further experiments in traffic control for a while. The first automatic traffic light was installed in Wolverhampton, England in 1926. It remained in service until 1968

Bell taught people who were deaf, so he was acutely sensitive to sound vibrations and how they traveled. Bell's most important contribution, however, was his view of the telephone as a means of communication over real distances, using human speech instead of such nonvocal codes as smoke signals, tomtoms, or Morse code. Bell and others discovered that the sounds of speech could be converted to an electrical signal, transmitted over copper wires, and converted back to sound at the receiving device.
Today's telephone system links the entire globe. His invention not only made it possible for us to chat with friends miles away, but opened the door for intercoms, walkie-talkies, radio, fax transmission and even the Internet. Wonder what he would have thought of Voicemail and answering machines....
By the help of this invention, we are able to speak to people far from us without mail. As result, it makes communication easy!

Imagine if, instead of using the fridge in the kitchen, you had to keep meat and fish preserved in barrels of salt or smoked in a smoke house out back?
Imagine how large the grocery store would be if it used snow and ice, cool streams, springs, caves and cellars to keep ice cream frozen and TV dinners chilled!
Those grocery store and kitchen fridges are the latest development in a 3,000 year evolution of refrigeration. As early as 1,000 BC, the Chinese cut and stored ice for use in warmer weather. 500 years later, the Egyptians and Indians made ice on cold nights by leaving water in wet earthenware pots outside. In 18th century England, servants collected ice in the winter and put it into icehouses, where the sheets of ice were packed in salt, wrapped in strips of flannel material, and stored underground to keep them frozen until summer.
Ice houses evolved into smaller ice boxes that were made of wood and lined with tin or zinc and insulated with cork or sawdust. Sometimes even seaweed was used to keep ice cold and "refrigerate" food. A drip pan collected the melted water and someone had to empty it every day.
In the 18th century, scientist Michael Faraday liquefied ammonia to cause cooling. Today's fridge and freezer (not to mention air conditioners and de-humidifiers) work on an idea adapted from Faraday's experiments.
Refrigerators compress a gas into a liquid. This process generates heat (which you can usually feel at the back of your fridge). The liquid is pumped through pipes to the inside of fridge and allowed to expand back into a gas. This process absorbs heat, cooling the inside of the fridge. The gas is pumped back out and the cycle repeats.
People didn't switch from ice boxes to modern refrigerators voluntarily. Warm winters in 1889 and 1890 in the U.S. created shortages of natural ice. Grocery stores and food industries were forced to use large refrigerators to freeze and store fish, dairy products and meat so they wouldn't go bad.
In 1911 General Electric released a home refrigerator invented by a French monk. This used compressors that were driven by long belts attached to motors in the basement or in a neighbouring room. The dial in the back of the fridge that controls temperature was added in 1918. A typical fridge at that time looked like a wooden cabinet with a water-cooled compressor. Later, more stylish steel and porcelain cabinets replaced the wooden ones. Freezers with ice cube trays were added on top. Automatic ice makers started churning out ice in the 1950s and 60s.
Now, the fridge is one of the most common home appliances. It's found in 99.5 per cent of North American homes!

Television is the most popular way people get their news and entertainment today. Could you imagine what the world would be like without television?
Unlike most of the world's major inventions, hardly anyone knows who created television. His name was Philo Farnsworth. In 1927, Philo, who was only 20 years old, sent the first all-electronic image in his own lab in San Francisco, California. The image was a simple black line that was being rotated to see if the television could record and reproduce its movement. The first television didn't have any sound.
Philo loved inventing. He invented many other things, such as the idea to use radio waves to detect things (which later became radar), the baby incubator, and black light, which makes white things look as if they're glowing.
It wasn't until the early 1950s that people in Canada could buy a television. The first televisions were black and white, and there were only a couple of channels. A few years later, people could buy color televisions. Now televisions are quite wonders of the technology as we can see far distances by means of it!..
The Internet was originally set up in 1973 by the U.S. Department of Defense as a way to link up the computers of its staff and facilities.
Scientists and researchers began to link up with the Net, and as the use of personal computers boomed in the early 1990s, private individuals and businesses began to use it as a quick, inexpensive means of communication. One particular Internet function, the World Wide Web - has been the foundation of much of the Internet's rapid growth.

Arthur Fry was frustrated. Fry, a chemist for 3M, was a member of his church choir. He loved to sing, but he was annoyed each time he stood up to sing, only to find that the little pieces of paper he used as bookmarks would always fall out. He then had to frantically try to find the right page in his hymn book. One day during a long sermon, Fry's mind began to wander... then he had a flash of insight. Fry realized that he could make a bookmark that would stick to products and could be removed without causing any damage. Dr. Spence Silver, another 3M employee, had created a new type of glue that wasn't very sticky, and would never dry. When glued papers were pulled apart, all the glue stuck either to one paper or the other. At first, Silver couldn't think of a way to use his new glue. That was until Arthur Fry came up with his "bookmark" idea. It wasn't until later in the 3M offices that people started to use the "sticky bookmarks" as self-attaching notes. When 3M first tried to sell Post-it notes, they weren't too successful. Eventually, through word-of-mouth, their popularity caught on. Today, Post-it notes are found in offices, homes, and schools around the world.

Here are some inventions sounds little than other objects but they are very useful in our daily life. If we want to write the name of the inventions on paper, it will take too many pages of paper.
Every people invent something by chance. I think being inventor is a natural instinct that humanbeing have. Someone are thinking that inventors are only from scientists. But it is wrong. In T.V channels, there are some documentaries that process inventions. I recommend you to watch. I want to tell a event. I saw a man from America. He was a fireman. He was working with fire and . He developed a hose that had a lot of holes on the head. When he turned on water, water gush out from the holes and it shaped like a shield. The fireman could go everywhere in fire. And at the end he got a reward from the governorship.
The history of the inventions has no beginning and ending. Every second humanbeing produces, improves and invents a lot of things. In my opinion, technology is all about 3 things. Think, make a plan and start to produce. If you are enough for doing these things, you can do whatever you want and you have an excellent life.
And we come to the end. I give my special thanks to the people whoever helps me in this research and thanks for your teaching. There may be some mistakes but I hope you’ll forgive me for them. And for last,
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