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Alt 04-11-2008, 21:11   #1
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Standart Commands

COMMANDS

Positive Negative
Say.... Don’t say...


The verb be (singular)

Long Forms Short Forms
I am I’m
You are You’re
He is He’s
She is She’s
This is



Subject Pronouns; The verb be

Positive Negative Questions
I’m (I am) I’m not Am I ...?
You’re (You are) You aren’t Are you...?
She’s (She is) She isn’t Is she ...?
He’s (He is) He isn’t Is he ...?
We’re (We are) We aren’t Are we ...?
They’re (They are) They aren’t Are they ...?
Wh- Questions
Who’s ...? (Who is...?) Who are...?
What’s ...?(What is...?) What are...?


a or an ?

a a video a computer
an an animal an umbrella

Have got

Positive Negative
I’ve got... I haven’t got...
You’ve got... You haven’t got...
She/He’s got She/He hasn’t got...
It’s got... It hasn’t got...
We’ve got... We haven’t got...
They’ve got... They haven’t got...
Questions Short Answers
Have I got...? Yes, you have./No, you haven’t.
Have you got...? Yes I have./No, I haven’t.
Has she/he got...? Yes, she /he has./ No, she/he hasn’t.
Has it got...? Yes, it has./ No, it hasn’t.
Have we got...? Yes, we have. / No, we haven’t.
Have they got...? Yes they have. / No, they haven’t.


Plural Nouns

Singular Plural
Regular nouns cat cats
-y endings (usually) family families


Adjectives

The singular and plural forms of adjectives are the same: one blue jean, two blue jeans.

There is/There are

Statements Questions Answers
There is...(There’s) Is there...? Yes, there is./No, there isn’t.
There are... Are there...? Yes, there are./No,there aren’t

Use there is...(+ singular noun ) or there are...(+ plural noun to talk about the place or position of things.

There is a red shirt on the chair .
There are two jumpers on the bed.


Prepositions of Place

Use prepositions of place to talk about the position of things.
‘Where’s my jumper?’ ‘It’s in/on/near/under/next to your chair.’


Possesive’s

Add ‘s to a singular noun or name to show possesion: This is Bill’s new house.(This is his new house.)This is Emma’s mother.(This is her mother.)




The Present Simple Tense ( like,drink... )

Positive Negative
I/you like... I/you don’t like...
He/She likes... He/She doesn’t like...
We/They like... We/They don’t like...
Questions
Do you like...?
Does she/he like...?
Do we/they like...?


Countable and Uncountable Nouns

Countable nouns : Things we count.
Pen: one pen,two pen,three pen...

Uncountable nouns :Things we don’t count.
Milk: some milk...

Some and Any

We usually use some:

☻with countable and un able nouns: some cars / some water

☺ in positive sentences : I’d like some information.

We usually use any:

☻in questions : Do you want any ketchup ?

☺in negative sentences : I don’t want any onions .


The Present Simple

Some verbs add -es with he,she and it.

He goes to bed... / He watches TV...
She goes to bed... / She watches TV...
It goes...

Negative: She doesn’t go to bed... / Questions: Does he watch TV...?
Adverbs of Frequency

Always, usually, often, sometimes and never.

Position: 1- usually before the main verb
2- always after the verb be (am,is,are)

Telling the Time

What’s the time ?





10:10 10:30 10:45
ten past ten half past ten quarter to eleven


Object Pronouns

I me
you you
he him
she her
it it
we us
you you
they them


This, that, these and those

This page. These two pages.
That bottle. Those bottles.


Quantity


A lot of + countable or uncountable nouns: a lot of water, a lot of visitors.
A little + uncountable nouns only: a little water.
A few + countable nouns only: a few visitors.



Can / Can’t (cannot)

Statements:

Positive: She can speak English.
Negative: I can’t speak Chinese.

Questions:

Can I help you ?
Can you speak Japanese ?

Must

Must is for rules and orders. You must do your homework.

Talking About Time

Use
☺ -in- : with parts of the day. in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening
but : at night

☻ -at- : with times (.....o’clock ) at eight o’clock, at quarter past twelve.

☺ -on- : with days of the week. on Wednesday, on Sunday.

The Present Continuous

Positive Statements: am/is/are + main verb + -ing
It’s raining.

Negative Statements: am/is/are + not (n’t) + main verb + -ing
It isn’t raining now.

Questions (Yes/No) and Short Answers: Is it raining? Yes,it is. / No,it isn’t.

We often use the present continuous to talk about what is happening at or near the time we are speaking or writing.

Adverbs of Manner

Adjective Adverb
loud + -ly loudly
slow + -ly slowly
noisy + -ily noisily

Irregular Adverbs
good well
fast fast
hard hard


We use adverbs of manner to describe the way that something happens.

They’re walking quickly.


The Present Simple and The Present Continuous

Present Simple:

Facts: My brother lives in NewYork.
Regular Actions: Mum starts work at 7:00 a.m.

Present Continuous:

Actions at or near the time we are speaking or writing :

What’s Dad doing ? / He’s cooking lunch.
I’m learning English this year.


How much...? and How many...?

We use How much...? with uncountable nouns.

How much milk/time/money/water have you got?

We use How many...? with countable nouns.

How many apples/pens/T-shirts/cassettes have you got?


Ordinal Numbers

Ordinal numbers end in -st, -nd, -rd or –th.

1st :first / 2nd :second / 3rd :third / 4th :forth

25th :twenty-fifth / 46th :forty-sixth

79th :seventy-ninth
The Past Simple Tense of be, have and go

be
Two Positive Forms: was , were

Negative Forms: wasn’t (was not) and weren’t (were not).


I/he/she/it was/ wasn’t
You were/weren’t
We/They were/weren’t

have
One Positive Form: had

Negative: didn’t + have

Questions: Did + have...? / Did she have a holiday

go
One Positive Form: went

Negative: didn’t + go

Question: Did + go...? / Where did you go?


Adverbs of Past Time

Yesterday , last ( night / week / Monday / July ) , in ( May , June )


The Past Simple: Regular Verbs

Positive: infinitive + -ed enjoyed , helped , started .

Negative: didn’t + infinitive didn’t want , didn’t help

The positive and negative forms are the same for all the pronouns.

Spelling Rule: When the verb already ends in -e , only add -d , liked , arrived , saved .

Sequencing Words

These words and phrases make the order of events clear.
First... / Then... / Next... / After that... / Finally...
The Past Simple : Irregular Verbs

This unit introduces some common irregular verbs . There are a lot of irregular verbs in English .


Present Continuous with Future Meaning

There are two common uses of the present continuous in English:

1- To talk about the present

What are you doing Dad ?
I’m washing the new car (now / today / at the moment).

2- To talk about future plans

What are you doing at the weekend ?
We’re visiting friends in London tomorrow, and we’re going to a party on Sunday.


Making Succestions

We can make suggestions in different ways :

+ Infinitive
Shall we... have a pizza?
Why don’t we... have a pizza?
Perhaps we can... have a pizza.
Let’s... have a pizza.
+ -ing Form
How about... having a pizza?


Possesive Pronouns

Mine / Yours / His / Hers / Its / Ours / Yours / Theirs

Question: Whose...? ( =Who does it belong to?)

Answers: It’s... + possesive pronoun
‘Whose is this cassette ?’ ‘It’s mine.’



One or Ones

We use one (singular) or ones (plural) when we do not want to repeat the same noun again and again.


‘Which street ?’ ‘The next one.’ (one = street)
‘Which tomatoes ?’ ‘The red ones.’ (ones = tomatoes)


Comparative Adjectives

Adjective Comparative
Short Adjectives
( I syllable ) old
fat older than
fatter than
Adjectives ending in-y noisy noisier than
Longer adjectives
(2,3 or 4 syllables ) interesting more interesting
than
Irregular adjectives good / bad better / worse than


We use comparative to compare two people or things.
Tom is younger than me. Greece is warmer than Britain.


As + Adjective + As

Things that are same : Class B is as noisy as class A .


Superlative Adjectives

Adjective Comparative
Short Adjectives
( I syllable ) short
big the shortest
the biggest
Adjectives ending in-y heavy the heavier
Longer adjectives
(2,3 or 4 syllables ) modern the most modern

Irregular adjectives good / bad the better / the worse


We use the superlative forms of adjectives when we compare one thing with two or more others.



Quantity Phrases

These phrases tell us how many there are .





0% 50% 100%

none of not many of, half of a lot of most of all of
a few


None of my friends are here . All of my friends are here .


More + Adverb + Than

We use more + adverb + than to compare the way people do things:

I lough more loudly than my sister.


As + Adverb + As

We use as + adverb + as to say that people do things in the same way :

She plays football as regularly as I do.


Be Going To


Statements
I ( not ) going to leave .
He/She/It ( not ) going to leave .
You/We/They ( not ) going to leave .
Questions Short Answers
Are you going to come to party on Friday ? Yes, I am.
Is she going to come ? No, she isn’t.

We use be going to to talk about future plans.

They’re going to build a new gym at my school next year.
a / an and the

We use a / an + noun the first time we talk about something.
We use the + noun when it’s clear what we are talking about.

There is a man and a woman outside. The man is short and the woman is tall.


Before / After

We use before and after to join sentences and show the order of events.

Before Eleni went out , she closed the windows.

After her husband’s , Marie won a second Nobel Prize.


Could / Couldn’t

We use could to talk about ability in the past. It’s the past of can.Couldn’t is the negative.

She could play teh piano when she was three .
I couldn’t remember her name .


Ago

We use ago to say when something happened .It means ‘before now’.We use it with a period of time.

He started acting five years ago.


How Often...?

We use how often ...? to ask about frequency.
How often do you wash your hair?

We usually answer the question with a frequency adverb or frequency expression.
I sometimes go swimming on Saturday.
I wash my hair everyday / twice a week.

These are frequency expressions : everyday / week / month , once / twice / three times a day / week / month.

Will / Won’t

We use will / won’t to predict the future .We use a main verb after it.
Robots will do a lot of our jobs in the future.
We won’t do boring things in the house.


The Past Continuous and The Past Simple

I/He/She/It was (not) helping
You/We/They were (not) working


We use the past continuous to talk about an action ,happening at a time in the past.

We were living in London in January.
She was eating her dinner at seven o’clock last night.

She was eating her dinner

NOW
PAST

at seven o’clock last night.


When one action stars in the middle of another action , we use the past continuous (for the first action) and the past simple (for the second action).

I was playing football when I broke my leg.
While I was playing football, I broke my leg.


I was playing football

NOW
PAST

when I broke my leg.



We usually use when to introduce the past simple action and while introduce the pasy continuous action.



Giving Advice

Should / Shouldn’t

We use should to say that something is a good idea.
You should go to the doctor.

We use shouldn’t to say that something is a good idea.
You shouldn’t go out when you are not well.


If + Present Simple , Imperative

We can use this type of conditional sentence (If sentence) to give advice.

If the problem doesn’t get better , come back and see me.


Making Requests

We use could , would , can and will for making requests.
Could and would are more formal than can and will.

Could / Would you look at my homework now,please ?
Can / Will you turn the TV off ? I’m trying to work !


Have to , Don’t Have to and Mustn’t

We use have to and don’t have to to say when it is or it isn’t necessary to do something.


I have to be polite to my teachers.=It is necessary.
I don’t wear uniform on Sundays.=It isn’t necessary.


The verb have to changes form after he,she and it ,to has to.

I have to make breakfast and my sister has to wash up.

We use mustn’t to say when something isn’t allowed.

You mustn’t eat or drink in class.


The First Conditional


If + Present Simple Will / Won’t + Main Verb
If you get wet , You’ll be ill .
If you are late , I won’t wait for you .



How Old / Long...?

How old are you ? I’m fifteen years old.
How long is it ? It’s 30 centimetres long.


Too and Enough

Too comes before adjectives / adverbs .It tells us ‘how much’ .

The tea is too hot . I can’t drink it .
We are going to slowly . They’re catching us!

Enough comes after adjectives / adverbs .It tells us ‘how much’ .

We can’t swim today . The water isn’t warm enough .
You aren’t working quickly enough .Hurry up ,please .


-ing Forms ( Gerunds )

Gerunds are the –ing form of verbs , used as nouns.The names of many activities (eg :sports and hobbies) are gerunds

I love swimming.
Swimming is great fun.


Infinitive of Purpose (to...)

We can use the infinitive of verbs to express purpose.

Why did you go to London ? To study English.
What is this money for ? To buy a computer.
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