Üyelik tarihi: Jan 2008
5 mesajına 5 kere teşekkür edildi.Tecrübe Puanı: 1000
Ozan Özcan Dolu
English and Composition I
May 17, 2002
RACISM AND ITS PLACE IN THE SOCIETY
Human being and its specified behaviors are very complex and the complexity increases if the human being lives in a society. In a group of people the one who is different from others in shape, color, even behaviors always suffers because he or she is different and seems as the cause of abnormalities. This is the main logic behind . or Race Discrimination has been a popular tendency of nt groups in a specified region in order to have control on others. This can be easily seen in the novel of Harper Lee, To Kill a Mockingbird. This is an example from the novel that focuses on Race Discrimination in the USA in 1920’s and 1930’s:
“It was an ancient paint-peeled frame building, the only church in Maycomb with a steeple and bell, called First Purchase because it was paid for from the first earnings of freed slaves. Negroes worshipped in it on Sundays and white men gamble in it on weekdays”.
Although is one of the oldest issues that people have been discussing, it still takes place in human life, surprisingly even in the most developed countries in the world. The real reason of this is the fact: is a tendency caused both from nationalism and religions.
All the countries in the world have some experiences about and these experiences differ based on their reaction to the . So it is a common controversial issue. This is because of the human’s natural mental structure tending to eliminate differences. The most revealed cases are the against Negroes especially in the USA and in South Africa and against Jews especially in Germany during the Second World War.
The history of against Negroes in America started in colonies. African black slaves were used in farms in British North America. Benjamin Brawley insists on the increase in slavery in 17th Century in his book. He explains the numeral increase of the slaves: “In 1625, six years after the first Negroes were brought to the colony, there were in Virginia only 23 Negroes, 12 male, 11 female. In 1659 there were 30; but in 1683 there were 3000 and in 1708, 12000”
(p 15). This quote shows us the raising popularity of working slaves in farms on those years. British government supported the farmers who ‘bought’ slaves and used them in their works. Brawley has an example about government politics about slavery in 17th Century: “About 1663 a British Committee on Foreign Plantations declared that “black slaves are the most useful appurtenances of a plantation” and twenty years later the Lords Commissioners of Trade stated that “the colonists could not possibly subsist” without an adequate supply of slaves”(p 15).
After years passed, the debate about the slavery increased with the number of freed slaves increased in America. Then there came a war in the USA, dealing with slavery issue. Tenzer explains that the war between the North and the South, named American Civil War, was exactly
based on whether Negroes should be employed as slaves, as they had been for decades or they should be accepted as free people of the USA like white people. The North won and with President Lincoln’s useful applications dealing with Negroes’ problems, Negroes acquired their rights as free people (pp 44-61).
In 19th and 20th centuries although Negroes acquired their own rights in the USA, they still had some problems about . A group of people built up a clan named Ku Klux Klan. Their main target was to kill all the Negroes because they think a Negro is not a human. This clan is one of the biggest negative reactions against equality between races in the years equality took place in the society. They had a well-known slogan about this case: “God is White!” It is a brief example of targets of this clan.
Today, although there are some who is still against Negroes, Negroes have human rights in equality with nt white society in the USA. Jaynes and Williams explain this result by giving example: “The new “American dilemma” that has emerged after the civil rights era of the 1960‘s results from two aspirations of black Americans: equal opportunity – the removal of barriers to employment, housing, education and political activities and the actual attainment of equality in participation in these sectors of life”(p 5).
In contrary to these improvements, a considerable number of Negroes in America think that discrimination is still alive. A questionnaire made in 1979-1980 shows that although 65% of Negroes think there is less discrimination, 24% of them think there are no changes and 11% of
Negroes think that there is more discrimination than before (Jaynes-Williams, p134). 11% is a high rate in fact but hopefully it is known that the rate of decreases day by day because of the mental improvements of people supporting human rights.
Although against Negroes is a well known and was widespread discrimination, there were more cases of in history. As an illustration the against and also genocide on Jews in ’s Germany is very important. In 2nd World War, German Army had captured lots of countries including France, Greece, Estonia and areas between them (that is nearly half of the Europe). Hartmann explains that after Germany started to kill all the Jews that the German Army could recognize that they are Jews. They made genocide over
Jews, which made Germans seem as a barbarian nation in 20th century. Thousands of Jews were killed and some of them were even used to produce soap (pp 42-59).
Decades after this genocide happened, today Jews can live where and however they want. Also they have a country of themselves named Israel, but they have another problem about . This time Israel’s against Palestinians threatens peace especially in the Middle East. There are two nations lives together in Israel and everyday lots of people die in war because they claim that the Holy Lands belong to them. Also it is common belief in the society that Israel wants to put pressure on Palestinians and make them leave the Holy Lands.
Jews have a lot of experiences about for and against. What would be the reaction of Jews to the against Negroes? Jews and Negroes are the groups specific and different
from American society. They also have a place in the society but they have seemed as different by American people. The main issue is what they feel about each others. Do Jews think or have ever thought that Negroes are 2nd class people? There is something about this issue in Seth Forman’s book named “Blacks in The Jewish Mind”. Forman focused on the relationship between Negroes and Jews: “The new ideological formulation was embodied in the statement of Purposes of the Common Council for American Unity, a group long interested in ethic affairs: ‘To help create among the American people the unity and mutual understanding resulting from a common citizenship, a common belief in democracy and the ideals of liberty…and the acceptance, in fact as well as in law, of all citizens, whatever their national or racial origins as equal partners in American society’” (p 25). This idea includes the Jew’s ideas towards American society. Jews agree that Jews, Negroes and other white Americans are different members of same society.
High rates of may cause genocides and holocausts and these terms are natural in human life and in international politics. In fact these are the events that should not be done anymore; because the more modern the society become, the more freedom people should have. In contrary to this, today nationalism is raising up in whole world, especially in developed countries due to the anxiety of not being safe from ist attacks. The minorities in European countries seem as the real source of ism. this is the most important cause of rise of nationalism nowadays. Also, nationalism is the first step of .
On the other hand, in addition to Nationalism, religion differences are the secondary important cause of . The case we insisted on like against Jews in Germany is especially caused from religion differences; but there is something illogical about depends on religion difference. Although all celestial religions explain that all the human beings are the grandchildren of the first human named Adam, some religionist clans makes discrimination between races.
To sum up, is always caused by difference and the reaction of the people to the different things. is one of the most revealed issues and the most revealed cases were against Negroes and Jews but all the nations in the World have experiences about this. against Negroes was laboring them as slaves at most but against Jews was harsher. The relationships between Jews and Negroes have a special place in the American history because these two are the most crowded minorities in the USA. Despite the fact that Jews suffered a lot from in 2nd World War, they are doing the same applications to the Palestinians. This shows that has a natural place in human behaviors like an instinct. In contrast love has a special place in human life. Lee shows the real love in her book: “‘He is in my grade’ I said, ‘and he does right well. He is a good boy’, I added, ‘a real nice boy. We brought him home for dinner one time. Maybe he told you about me, I beat him up one time but he was real nice about it. Tell him hey for me, won’t you?’”(Lee Harper p 159)
I hope one day all people in the world will able to love all the people around without considering racial differences like Scout. But today all we can do is to have a hope for nice and peaceful days.
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