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Alt 12-13-2008, 20:47   #1
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Standart Noun Clauses

Noun Clauses



NOUN CLAUSES
That
Whether/if
WH words (what, who, which, how, etc.) Sentence
Who
What
Whose + N Verb
İsmin yerine kullanılan bağlı cümlelere noun clause denir. Genel olarak zamirinden sonra (that, what etc.) cümle gelir. Ancak özne konumunda kullanıldığında who, what veya whose+noun kendisinden sonra yüklem alır.
That Clause
Türkçe’ye çoğunlukla –(di)ği veya –mesi ekleriyle çevrilir.Bu eklere noun clause’ın cümledeki pozisyonuna göre –ni, -nu vs. (belirtili nesne) veya –na, -ne vs. (dolaylı tümleç) ekleri ilave edilir.
 Isn’t it important that he loves you? (Seni sev-mesi önemli değil mi?)
 He doesn’t hide that he loves you. (Seni sevdi-ği-ni gizlemiyor.)
 He has promised that he will love you forever. (Seni sonsuza dek sevece-ği-ne söz verdi)
Relative clause’daki that ile karıştırılmamalıdır. Relative clause’un that’i her zaman isimden sonra gelir.
 It is not the doctor that I visited. [relative clause]
 He doesn’t know that I’ve visited a doctor. [noun clause]
That bazı durumlarda söylenmeyebilir. Bu durumlar aşağıda parantez içinde verilmiştir.
1) Yüklemden sonraki that atılabilir. [object of a verb]
 I know (that) he is innocent.
2) Sıfattan sonraki that atılabilir. [adjective compliment]
 I’m sure (that) he is innocent.
3) to be sonrasındaki that atılamaz. [predicate nominative]
 My opinion is that he is innocent.
4) Cümle başında yer alan that atılamaz. [subject]
 That he is innocent is obvious.
5) İsimden sonra gelen that atılamaz. [appositive]
 The fact that he is innocent is obvious.
Because of
On account of
Thanks to
Due to
Owing to
In view of
In spite of
Despite the fact that you’re innocent I love you.
NOTE: That clause preposition ile birleşmez. Birleşmenin gerekli olduğu durumlarda, sözgelimi yandaki kalıplarda araya durumu yansıtan bir isim eklenir. The fact bunların en yaygınıdır.

If and Whether
1) Yüklemden sonra ‘whether’ veya ‘if’ kullanabiliriz. [object of a verb]
 I don’t know whether/if she’ll be admitted to the university.
2) Sıfattan sonra ‘whether’ veya ‘if’ kullanabiliriz. [adjective compliment]
 It is doubtful whether/if she’ll be admitted to the university.
3) Cümle başında ‘whether.’ [if kullanılmaz] [subject compliment]
 Whether she’ll be admitted to the university is not known yet.
4) to be fiilinden sonra whether kullanılır [if kullanılmaz] [subject]
 What she wants to find out is whether she’ll be admitted to the university.
5)İsimden sonra sadece whether kullanılır. [if kullanılmaz] [appositive]
 The question whether she’ll be admitted to the university is not answered yet.
6) preposition’dan sonra ‘whether’ kullanılır. [if kullanılmaz] [object of a preposition]
 Everything depends on whether she’ll be admitted to the university.
NOTE: Aşağıdaki son iki örnekte if kullanılamaz.
 I wonder whether / if she will come or not.
 I wonder whether or not she will come. (if or not diye bir kullanım şekli yok)
 I am wondering whether to have the fish or the beef. (if to have olmaz, if+to infinitive yanlış)
NOTE: Buradaki if cümleciklerini bir adverbial clause olan if clause ile karıştırmayın.
 I don’t know if she is old enough. [NC]
 You can marry if she is old enough. (=If she is old enough you can marry.) [If Clause-AC]
NOTE: THAT CLAUSE olgu, yargı; WHETHER CLAUSE ise şüphe, kuşku belirten isimlerden sonra sıklıkla kullanılır. whether clause’da hep belirsizlik vardır.
That clause Kanaat, olgu Whether clause İkilem, belirsizlik
opinion fact probability hope
belief knowledge possibility fear
assumption likelihood suspicion
view chance doubt
claim explanation
contention indication
argument report
idea rumour question
doubt

 I have a horrible suspicion that she’s not telling the truth.
 The hope that they would be freed gave the hostages courage.
 I am in doubt whether I should buy or not.
Other WH-Words
Aşağıdaki tablo WH-words ve –Ever words ile yapılan noun clause kullanım olanaklarını göstermektedir.
why sentence I don’t know why you are here.
when sentence I don’t know when she will come.
where sentence I don’t know where she is now.
wherever sentence You can send this letter to wherever you want.
how sentence I don’t know how she is.
how ever sentence I don’t know how ever you got here so quickly. [bazıları bitişik yazıyor:however]
what sentence I don’t know what you want.
whatever sentence Whatever you want will be done accurately.
who sentence I don’t know who you want more.
whoever sentence You can choose whoever you want.
whose sentence I don’t know whose these cars are.
which sentence I don’t know which you want more.
whichever sentence You can take whichever you want.

How adj sentence I didn’t know how urgent the matter was.
How adv sentence I don’t know how hard they study for the examination.

what N sentence I don’t know what problem she has.
whatever N sentence I don’t know whatever problem she can cause.
whose N sentence I don’t know whose book this is.
which N sentence I don’t know which book you prefer.

whose N V I don’t know whose father is wealthier.
what V I don’t know what can cause such a horrible damage.
whatever V I don’t mind whatever will happen.
who V I don’t know who came here earlier.
whoever V I don’t care whoever came here earlier.
which (one) V I don’t know which (one) is your father.

where
 I know where she lives.
 Where she lives is beautiful.
DİKKAT: Aşağıdaki örneklerin ilkinde relative ikincisi ise adverbial clause kullanılmıştır..
 I know the town where she lives. [RC]
 She doesn’t feel secure where she lives. [AC]
why
 I wonder why he left early.
 Why he left early is not known.
DİKKAT: Aşağıdaki örnekte relative clause kullanılmıştır.
 I don’t know the reason why he left early. [RC]
when
 I remember when he was born.
 When he was born is not known.
DİKKAT: Aşağıdaki örneklerin ilkinde relative ikincisi ise adverbial clause kullanılmıştır..
 I remember the day when he was born. [RC]
 When he was born, we had been married for three years. [AC]
who
 I want to know who ate the cake. [who+verb]
 I want to know who you love more. [who+sentence]
DİKKAT: Aşağıdaki örneklerde relative clause kullanılmıştır.
 I don’t know the person who ate the cake. [RC] [who+verb]
 I don’t know the girl who you love. [RC] [who+sentence]
whose
 I want to know whose essay Mary copied.
 Whose essay Mary copied must be found out.
 I want to know whose these are.
 Whose father is richer is important.
DİKKAT: Aşağıdaki örnekte relative clause kullanılmıştır.
 The student whose essay Mary copied is not in class now. [RC]
what
 I want to know what happened here. [what+verb]
 What happened here is not known. [what+verb]
 I wonder what you are doing now. [what+sentence]
 What you are doing now doesn’t concern me. [what+sentence]
 I don’t know what illness she has. [what+sentence]
which
 I want to know which you want. [which+sentence]
 Everybody wonders which athlete will come first. [which+N]
 I know which (one) is your car. [wich+verb]
DİKKAT: Aşağıdaki örnekte relative clause kullanılmıştır.
 The car which is red belongs to my uncle. [RC]
WH-ever Words (zarf mı isim mi?)
WH-ever bağlaçları hem noun clause’lar ile hem de adverbial clause’lar ile kullanılabilir.
a) Zarf cümlecikleri ana cümleden önce veya sonra kullanılabilir. İsim cümlecikleri ise ana cümlenin bir parçasıdır, cümle içinde taşınamaz.
b) Zarf cümleciklerindeki WH-ever kelimeleri yerine no matter WH-word eklenebilir. İsim cümleciklerinde ise ANY veya kombinasyonları bunların yerine konularak sıfat cümlecikleri yapılabilir. Zaman zaman ANY yerine EVERY veya kombinasyonları da kullanılabilir.
whatever
 Whatever he complains about will be dealt with immediately . [whatever+sentence] (=Anything he complains about will be dealt with immediately)
 Whatever complaint he has will be dealt with immediately [whatever+noun+sentence] (=Any complaint he has will be dealt with immediately)
DİKKAT: Aşağıdaki örnekte adverbial clause kullanılmıştır.
 Whatever complaint he has, we have to deal with it immediately. (=We have to deal with it immediately, whatever complaint he has.) [AC] (=No matter what complaint he has, we have to deal with it immediately.)
whoever
 Whoever left the door unlocked must be held responsible for the accident. [whoever+verb] (=Anyone who left the door unlocked must be held responsible for the accident)
 He makes friends easily with who(m)ever he meets. [who(m)ever+sentence]
(=He makes friends easily with anyone who(m) he meets)
(=He makes friends easily with anyone he meets)
DİKKAT: Aşağıdaki örnekte adverbial clause kullanılmıştır.
 Whoever left the door unlocked, the management can have no tolerance for such negligence. [AC] (=The management can have no tolerans… whoever left the door unlocked)
(=No matter who left the door unlocked, the management can have no tolerance…)
whichever
 There are 4 programmes on TV at 8 o’clock. We can watch whichever program you prefer. (=We can watch any program that you prefer)
DİKKAT: Aşağıdaki örnekte adverbial clause kullanılmıştır.
 Whichever program you prefer, I will not watch TV tonight.
(No matter which program you prefer, I will not watch TV tonight)

NOTE 1: Diğerleri de yukarıdaki örneklerde olduğu gibi gerçekleşir.

NOTE 2: what ile başlayanlar dışındaki tüm noun clause’lar tekildir.
 What we need is a new plan.
 What we need are new ideas.
SUBJUNCTIVE in THAT CLAUSE
Aciliyet, önem-ehemmiyet, zorunluluk veya tavsiye-uyarı-ikaz ifade eden bazı yüklem, isim ve sıfatlardan sonra gelen that clause’ların yüklemi her durumda ve zamanda yalın halde (bare infinitive) bulunur.

 It is essential that she consult a doctor.(positive)
 It is important that she not delay the treatment.(negative)
 It is essential that a doctor be consulted.(passive)
 I was essential that we bring a doctor. (past)
 It is vital that Mr. Jackson be here at 5 o’clock. (future)
NOTE: Bu yapıların tamamında that clause yükleminden önce SHOULD kullanılabilir.
 It is essential that she (should) consult a doctor.
NOTE: Subjunctive olma durumu yüklem, sıfat veya ismin kendisine değil anlamına ilişkindir.
 I insist that she tells the truth.
 I insist that she tell the truth.

BAZI YAYGIN SUBJUNCTIVE YAPTIRICILAR
ÖNEM -ACİLİYET
ZORUNLULUK
TAVSIYE-UYARI
EMIR-ISTEK

ADJECTIVE
crucial
important
significant
vital
essential urgent imperative
mandatory
obligatory
necessary advisable
recommendable
(in) appropriate desirable
NOUN importance
significance
urgency requirement
necessity recommendation
order
command
rule
insistence
demand

VERB suggest recommend
warn urge
insist
propose
instruct
prefer
ask
request
demand
beg

NOTE: LEST de benzer bir şekilde kullanılabilmektedir.
 She gripped her son’s arm lest he (should) be trampled by the mob.
Reduction of Noun Clause
a) özneler aynı, eş zamanlı (that clause)
that kalkar, yüklem to infinitive (to do formatı) yapılır.
 He is happy that he is here.
He is happy to be here.
b) özneler ayrı, eş zamanlı (that clause)
that kalkar, öznesi başına for getirilir, yüklem to infinitive (to do formatı) yapılır.
 It is very safe that children swim here.
It is very safe for children to swim here.
 It is essential that she change her job.
It is essential for her to change her job.
c) özneler aynı, eş zamanlı (WH-word noun clause’lar)
Yüklem to infinitive (to do formatı) yapılır. Öznelerin her zaman ortak olması gerekmez.
 I don’t know what I should do.
I don’t know what to do.
 Could you tell me how I can get to the station?
Could you tell me how to get to do station?
 Jim told us where we could find it.
Jim told us where to find it.
d) önceki zamanlı (that clause)
 I’m glad that I have been selected.
I’m glad to have been selected.
 I am happy now that I finished my school two years ago.
I am happy now to have finished my school two years ago.
e) It is said that …
 It is said that John is in London now.  Present/present
John is said to be in London now.
 It was understood that she had a gift for music.  Past/past
She was understood to have a gift for music.
 It is expected that the plan will be accepted by the president.  Present/future
The plan is expected to be accepted by the president.
 It was expected that she would win the race.  Past/future
She was expected to win the race.
 It is reported that he is making a rapid recovery from his illness.  Present/future
He is reported to be making a rapid recovery from his illness.  Past/past continuous
 It was reported that he was staying in the city.  Past continuous/past continuous
He was reported to be staying in the city.
 It is said (that) he has been working on a new project.  Present/pre. perfect continuous
He is said to have been working on a new project.
 It is believed that plant life originated in the water.  Present/past
Plant life is believed to have originated in the water.
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