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Alt 04-07-2009, 10:53   #1
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Standart The necessİty of algorİthms










THE NECESSITY OF ALGORITHMS
TUNÇ OVACIK
090990012
English 201
Mathematica Engineering
Terry Gardner
07/12/2001






The Necessity Of Algorithms

Thesis: Algorithms are necessary for files in electrical engineering, dynamic engineering, numerical analysis, and especially in computer science because of their simple, unambiguous
and effective properties, having the abilitty to minimize bugs that come after executing the program, saving our time in big projects and decreasing the cost of the program.
I. Since the written algorithms for computer programs are used in different time, for
different purpose by different programmers, algorithms should be understood by
each programmer; that is why algortihms include steps that should be simple,
unambiguous and effective.
A. Simple steps that algorithms include should be easy and uncomplicated.
1. The simple steps that algorithms contain should be easy.
2. The simple steps that algorithms contain should be uncomplicated.
B. Unambiguous steps that algorithms include should be definite and clear because
each algortihm is used for a definite purpose on a program, it has to be clear in
order to be understood of its functionby the programmer at first look.
1. The steps that algorithms contain should be definite.
2. The steps that algorithms contain should be clear.
C. Algorithms must be effective which means that steps that algorithms include should be useful and convenient.
1. The steps that algorithms contain should be useful.
2. The steps that algorithms contain should be convenient.
II. Written programs may have some bugs although it is possible to debug bugs, it takes a lot of time so, before writing program constructing its algorithm minizes bugs.
A. Anywhere in programs there could occur some bugs that may have syntax errors or hidden errors.
1. The bugs may be syntax errors.
2. The bugs may be hidden errors.
B.In order to debug any program, first the determination of bugs should be done then found bugs have to be relieved.
1. Fisrt, bugs have to be determined.
2. After determination of bugs, they have to be relieved.
C. Since algorithms help programmers to determine bugs, bugs could be minized by using algorithms.
1.An algotihm should be constructed before writing any program.
2.The algorithms will help programmers to determine bugs before executing
the program.
3. Before writing programs written algorithms optimize bugs.
III. Since time is limited and bugs in programs cause time loss, algorithms will save time in huge projects.
A.The properties of time, which are being limited and same with money, make itself important in computer scinece.
1. Time is not enough, in other words time is limited.
2. In computer science time means money.
B. Bugs in programs cause time loss because they have to be defined after that they have to be refined so, these operations take a lot of time.
1. First, bugs have to be defined.
2. Second, programs have to be refined from bugs to work properly.
C. Time can be saved by using algorithms because algorithms minize bugs and also help us to write programs more convenient.
1.There will be no loss of time since algorithms minize bugs.
2.Algorithms help us to wirte programs more convenient.
IV. Because algorithms minize bugs so there will not be any time loss which means that money will be saved, finally the cost of the program is going to be decreased by algorithms.
A. Content of the cost of the program.
1.First, programs will be written by skilled programmers.
2.Second, the hardware which will be used to write and execute programs.
3.Finaly, since bugs are time loss, they are also a content of the cost.
B. Debugging a program causes time loss because in order to determine bugs and in ordet to correct them take a lot of time.
1. It takes lots of time to determine bugs.
2. Because of bugs it takes lots of time to correct programs
C. Time constrictions are an important matter in computer science due the high cost of skilled programmers and modern hardware using algorithms to shorten the time used to write programs results in big savings to the companies involved.
1. Algorithms save time because they prevent time loss by minizing bugs.
2. Algorithms save money because time time means money.
Poeple of the world have an amazing technology which thay can use and is also still being improved. If programming languages did not exist it would be impossible to improve technology. So, in order to go further in computer science programming lanuages were invented. However, there become another concept with the invention of the programming lanuages. The concept is about how to wirte codes of a pogram. Before writing a program a sketch of this program has to be considered. The sketch include steps which consist codes. So, the considered sketch will let programmers wirte the codes of programs clearly and effectively. It will also let programmers know the bugs of the program before execution so that time loss will be prevented. In this way the cost of the program will decrease. The scientists in computer science call these considered sketch as algorithms. The conclusion is that algorithms are neessary for files in electrical engineering, dynamic engineering, numerical analysis and especially in compter scinece because of their simple, unambiguous and effective properties, having the ability to minimize bugs that come after executing the program, saving time in big projects and decreasing the cost of the program.
Since the written algorithms for computer programs are used in different time, for different purpose and by different programmers, algorithms should be understood by each programmer; that is why algorithms include steps that should be simple, unambiguous and effective. Simple steps that algorithms include should be easy and uncomlicated. The simple steps that algorithms contain shoud be easy. Moreover, the simple steps that algorithms contain should also be uncomlicated. The operations of an algorithm have to be clear and determinate and the operations also must be come after in a definite order ( Tremblay, DeDourek & Bunt, 1989, p.20 ). According to Johnsonbaugh ( p.142 ) "An algorithm is a step-by-step method of solving some problem." that is why each step of algorithms should be easy and uncomlicated.
Unambiguous steps that algorithms include should be definite and clear because each algorithm is used for a definite purpose on a program, it has to be clear in order to be understood of its function by the programmers at first look. The steps that algorithms contain should be definite. It has to be utterly clear what has been done in each step which also has to be certain ( Horowitz & Sahni, 1978, p.1 ). Furthermore, the steps that algorithms contain should be clear. According to Horowitz & Sahni ( p.1 ), each operation which has been done have to be completely clear.
Algorithms must be effective which means that steps that algorithms include should be useful and convenient. The steps that algorithms contain should be useful. A finite sets of steps constitutes an algorithms and each of these steps may necessitate at least one operation ( Horowitz & Sahni, 1978, p.1 ) that is why each steps which construct algorithms have to be useful. The steps that algorithms contain should be convenient. According to Tremblay, Dedourek & Bunt ( p.20 ) algorithms has to be efficient which means that a solution of a problem must be done in a finite number of steps. Let study the follwing problem: The average of four marks of the student's should be computed as the student's final grade and also the algortihm should display whether the average is an passing or failing grade. The following is the general algortihm of the problem:
1.Get from the user a set of four marks.
2. Sum these four marks and divide by 4 to find the average.
3. If the average is under 50,
- then print the final mark with a failing messages;
- otherwise print the final mark with a passing messages;
4. Stop.
As it can be seen each step has at least one operation to do and also each step is simple, unambiguous and effective (Tremblay, DeDourek & Bunt, 1989, pp.21, 24)
Written programs may have some bugs although it is possible to debug bugs, it takes a lot of time so, before writing program constructing its algorithms minizes bugs. Anywhere in programs there could occur some bugs that may have syntax errors or hiden errors. A program is composed of a finite number of implementations formed from the algorithm (Myler, 1998, p.5). A bug refers to any erroneous behavior of a computer system or software program. Actually as more simple bugs are program errors in computer science. All of the programming languages use its own syntax. For example, in C programming language each statement has to be ended by semi colon. If the statements do not end with semi colon in C programming language there will occur a syntax error after compiling the source code so programmer will not get any executable files until the programmer correct the syntax error. Compilers and linkers do not find any error in program, but the result generated by running the executable file of the program is not the one as programmer expected. This kind of error are hidden errors. The hidden error could be eliminated by using a debugger. According to Horowitz & Sahni ( p.4 ) " Debugging is the process of executing programs on sample data sets to determine if faulty results occur and, if so, to correct them."
In order to debug any program, first the determination of bugs should be done then found bugs have to be relieved. First, bugs have to be determined. The program made ready by the programmer is called source program and normally is written by a programming language such as Pascal, Ada, Ansi-C, Basic or COBOL (Tremblay, DeDourek & Bunt, 1989, p.15 ). The source program has to be converted into machine language for the specific proccesor by compilers (Tremblay, DeDourek & Bunt, 1989, p.15). In order to get errors first source program has to be written by any programming languages then it must be translated into machine language by a compiler. When the compilation is over the programmer can see if there are any errors or not. Bugs have to be relieved after the determination of bugs has been concluded. After the compilation if there are errors which could be syntax or hidden errors the programmer must take away the becoming bugs from the source program. It is clear that if there become some errors the programmer has to revise the source program and also has to compile the source program again which means time loss.
Since algorithms help programmers to determine bugs, these bugs could be minized by using algorithms before writing the codes of a program. Before writing any program, its algorithm should be constructed. The algorithms will help programmers to determine bugs before executing programs. In order to construct algorithm for optimzing bugs before the source code has been written.
Since time is limited and bugs in programs cause time loss, algorithms will save time in huge projects. The properties of time, which are being limited and being equivalent with money, make itself important in computer science. As mentioned above programmers losse time because of one main reason which is bugs. Because bugs could be realized only after the compilation of the source program so if there become bugs the compilation will be repeated for each becoming bugs and it will lead to time loss. In computer science due to the companies time is a content of the cost of a program so for these companies time means money. Because of that programmers have to write the source program flawless as much as the programmers can.
Bugs in programs cause time loss because they have to be defined, after that bugs have to be refined so, these operations take a lot of time. First, bugs have to be defined after the operation of compilation has finished. Second, programs have to be refined from bugs in order to make the program work properly. At the end of the compilation bugs have to be located in order to take bugs away from the source program. These procedures can not be applied easily
source programs which contain thousands of statement so in huge projects firstly algorithms must be constructed for minizing bugs which will not lead to losse time for programmers.
Time can be saved by using algorithms bacause algorithms minize bugs and also help programmers to write programs more convenient. There will be no loss of time since algorithms minize bugs. The source program must not be written without an algorithm. Because ambiguous particular could lead rapidly to errors in mechanical writing which will steer the programmer into rewriting the source program and make the compilation process again (Tremblay, DeDourek & Bunt, 1989, p.15,21). Algorithms help programmers to write programs more convenient which means that the solution of a problem should be done in a finite number of steps (Tremblay, DeDourek & Bunt, 1989, p.20).
Because algorithms minize bugs so there will not be any time loss which means that money will be saved, finally the cost of the program is going to be decreased by using algorithms. First, programs will be wirtten by skilled programmers that will construct the algorithms before writing the source program directly. Second, the hardware which will be used to write the source code and also will be used to execute programs. The execution time of a program is related to hardware so modern hardware will decrease the run time of a program. Finally, since bugs are time loss, they are also a cost of the program. Each lost minute comes back as money to the companies involved. Each of these counted reasons require money so all of them construct the cost of the program.
Because in order to determine bugs and in order to correct bugs, debugging a program causes time loss. It takes a lot of time to determine bugs. After compilation if there occur bugs, these has to be determined exactly where bugs are in the source program so this take time. Because of bugs it takes a lot of time to correct programs. Furthermore in order to correct faulty programs take another time. This process is called debugging so that debugging causes time loss.
Time constrictions are an important matter in computer science due the high cost of skilled programmers and modern hardware using algortihms to shorten the time used to write programs results in big savings to the companies involved. Algortihms save time because they prevent time loss by minizing bugs. Algorithms save money because time means money. According to Horowitz & Sahni (p.24) "Analyzing algorithms has a huge discharge in computing where time means money and efficiency saves dollars."
In conclusion, computers do what programmers tell computers to do not programmers want computers to do (Tremblay, DeDourek & Bunt, 1989, p.18) so the necessity of algorithms become naturally itself. The programmer must construct an algorithm before writing the source program because of algorithms simple, unambiguous and effective properties, having the ability to minimize bugs that come after executing the program, saving time in big projects and decreasing the cost of the program.












References
Daniel I.A. Cohen (1991). Introduction to computer theory. Hunter College City
University Of New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Findlay W. & Watt D. A. (1985). Pascal an introduction to methodical programming. London: Pitman Publishing.
Harley R. M. (1998). Fundamentals of engineering programming with C and Fortran.
Cambridge: The Presssyndicate Of The University Of Cambridge
Horowitz E. & Sahni S. (1978). Fundamentals of computer algorithms. Maryland: Computer Science Press.
Jacques J. & Judd C. (1987). Numerical analysis. London: Chapman and Hall.
Tremblay J. J. , DeDourek J M. & Bunt R. B., (1989). An algorithmic approach pascal edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
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