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Alt 04-03-2008, 19:39   #1
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Standart Term Work



Class-No: Hz/A 219

Lesson: English

Subject: Grammar Tenses

Teacher: H. İbrahim LİMONCUOĞLU

Cambridge University Press- English Grammar in Use Oxford University Press- Jackbot


a) Study this example situation:

Alex is a bus driver.But now he is asleep in bed.
But: He drives a bus.
This is present simple tense :

I/we/you/they drive
He/she/(it) drives

We use the present simple to talk about things in general. We are not thinking only about the present. We use it to say that something happens all the time or repeatedly, or that something is true in general. İt is not important whether the action is happening at the time of speaking:

The earth goes round the sun.
Nurses look after patients in hospitals.
İn Britain most of the shops close at 5.30 p.m.
Remember taht we say he/she/it -s. Don’t forget the -s:
I work in a bank. Barry works in a shop.
We use do/does to make questions and negative sentences:

• Do I/we/you/they work? I/we/you/they don’t work.
• Does he/she/it work? He/she/it doesn’t work.

Excuse me,do you speak English?
‘Would you like a cigarette?’ ‘No, thanks. I don’t smoke.’
Rice doesn’t grow in Britain.

• We use the present simple when we say how often we do things:
I get up at 8 o’clock every morning.
How often do you go to the dentist?
Ann doesn’t often drink tea.
In summer Tom usually plays tennis twice a week.

• Note that we say ‘Where do you come from?’ (Where are you from?):

Where are tou come from?
He comes from Japan. When you make a suggestion, you can say Why don’t you...?:
‘I’m tired.‘ ‘Why don’t you go to bed early?


• a) Study this example situation:

• Anne is in her car.She is on her way to work.

• She is driving to work.
• This means : She is driving now,at the time of speaking.
• This is the present continuous tense:
• I am driving
• She/He/(İt) is driving
• We/They/You are driving

• We use the present continuous when we talk about something which is happening at the time of speaking.

• -Please don't make so much noise. I am studying now.
• -Where is Margaret? She having a bath.
• -Lets go out now. İt isn't raining any more.

• b) We also use the peresent continuous when we talk about something which is happenig around the time of speaking,but not necessarealy exectly at the time of speaking.

• -Tom and Ann are talking and drinking in a cafe at the moment.
• c) We often use the present continuous when we talk about a period around the present for example today ,this season etc.

• -You are working hard today.
• -Tom isn't playing football this season.
• d) We use the present continuos when we talk about changing situations.

• -The population of the world is rising very fast.
• -İs your English getting better?
• > We use the past simple for finished events in the past.
• > Regular verbs are the verbs which make the past simple with -ed.
• > İn questions th subject comes after did.
• > Questions and negatives use the stem of the verb , not the past simple form.
• Affirmative Qustion
• You practised Did you practise?
• Negative wh- question
• you didn't practise where did you practise?
• > İrregular verbs do not make the past simple with -ed.You must learn rhe past simple form for these verbs.

• Affirmative Qustion
• you wore did you wear?
• Negative wh- question
• You didnt wear. What did you wear?

• -It was yesterday. He went to Germany.
• -She played the guitar yesterday.
• -İt ate meat last night.


We use the past continous to talk about something which was happening at a past time.
-This time last year I was living in Brazil.

– We sometimes use the past continous and the past simple in one sentence. We use the Past continuous to describe a longer action or situation.We use the past simple to describe a shorter action which happened in the middle of the longer action.

• I/he/she/it was doing
• you/we/they were doing

• -While jack was studying in the U.S.A , He met a film director.
• -While I was working in the garden I hurt my back.
• -When tom arrived We were having dinner.(We had already started dinner before Tom arrived.)
• -When tom arrived we had dinner.(Tom arriveed and we had dinner.)


When we talk about an indefinite time in the past , We use the present perfect simple this is often a recent event .
• - I have joined the football team.
• I/we/you//they have V3
• He/she/it has V3
• Compare past simple and presen tperfect simple events.
• I enjoyed my-self a lot last summer.
• PAST-------------------------------X--------------NOW
• (We know the exect time)

• I have joined the school basketball team.
• PAST--------------?--------------?-------------?--------NOW
• (We don't know exect time.)
• Use the present perfect to say that you have never done something or that you haven't done something during a period of time which continuous up to the present.
• -I have never smoked.
• -I haven't smoked for 3 years.
• -I haven't smoke since september.


• We use the present perfect continuous to describe something which started in the past and has continued up to the present.
• I/You/We/They HAVE (been doing)
• He/She/İt HAS (been doing)
• -I have been doing this since 11:30
• -İt has been rainig.
• -I have been talking to tom about your problems and he thinks ...
• Sometimes the action has been repeated and has not been happening continuously.
• -I have been taking part since December 1985.
• -İt has been rainig for two hours.
• -They have been waiting here for over an hour.


• a) We use will when we decided to do something at the time of speaking:
• -I have left the door open,I'll go and shutit.
• -What would you like to drink? I'll have lemonade please.
• -Did you phone Ann? Oh , no I forgot I'll do it now..

• You can not use the present simple in this sentences.
• -I'll go and shut it.(not ı go and shut it.)
• Do not use will to say what someone has already decided to do or arranged to do.
• -I can't meet you tommorow, Because my parents are comig to see me.(not my parents will come.)
• The negative of will is won't (or will not)
• -I won't wait you
• We often use I think I will ..or I don't think I will... when we decided to do something.
• b) We often use will in theese situations.
• Offering to do something.

• -That bag looks heavy. I'II help you with it.
• -I need some money. Don't worry I will lend you some.

• Agreeing or refusing to do smomething.
• -The car won't start.
• -I have ask John to help me but he won't.
• Promising to do something.
• -I won't tell Tom what you said.I promise.
• -I promise I will phone you as soon as I arrive.
• Asking someone to do something.
• -Will you shut to door please?
• -Will you please be quite?
• c) when we talk about the future we often say what someone has arranged to do or intents to do to not use will in situations.
• -Tom is playing tennis on Monday.
• We often use will with these words and expression.
• Probably I'll probably be a bit late this evening.
• (I'm)sure You must meet Ann .I'm sure you 'll like her.
• (I) expect I expect Carol will get the job.
• (I) think Do you think we will win the match?
• d) Will and Shall
• You can use shall or will with I and We :
• -We shall probably go to scotland in june.

• But in spoken Enklish we normally use the short forms I will and We will.
• -We will probably go to scotland in june.
• The negative of shall is shan't
• -I shan't be here tomorrow.
• Do Not use shall with He/she/it/you/they
• Note:That we use shall (not will) in the questions Shall I...? and Shall we ....?(for offers,suggestions etc.)
• -Shall I open the window?
• - I have got no many. what shall I do?

• a) We use going to when we say what we have already decided to do what we intend to do in the future.
• -Have you made the coffe yet? No but I am Just going to make it?

• b) We prefer to use the present continous when we say what someone has arranged to do - for example, arranged to meet someone , arranged to travel somewhere. Going to is also possible:

• -What time are tou meeting Ann? (or are you going to meet?)
• c) We use was/were going to say what someone intended to do in the past (but didn't do):

• -We were going to travel by train but then we decided to go by car.
• -I was just going to cross the road when someone shouted 'Stop!'
• d) Going to also has another meaning.

• The man can't see where he is going.There is a hole in front of him.
• He is going to fall into the hole.

• We use going to in this way when we say what we think will happen. Usually there is something in the present situation (the man walking towards the hole ) that makes the speaker sure about what will happen.

• -Look at those black clouds! It's going to rain
• -Oh, I feel terrible . I think I'm going to be sick.

• We form the past perfect with had - the past participle .
• I/he/she had gone
• I/he/she hadn't gone
• Had you/he/she gone?
• Sometimes we talk about something that happened in the past:
• -I arrived at the party.
• We use the past perfect to say that something had already happened before this time:
• -When I arrived at the party. Tom had already gone home.
• b)The past perfect is the past of the present perfect. Compare these situations:
• Present Past
• I'm hungry. I've just had lunch. I wasn't hungry. I'd just had lunch.
• The house is dirty. We haven't The house was dirty. We hadn't
• cleaned it for weeks. cleaned it for weeks.
• c) Compare the past perfect and the past simle:
• -Was Tom there when you arrived? No, he had already gone home.
• but: Was Tom there when you arrived? Yes, but he went home soon afterwards
• -Ann wasn't in when I phoned her. She was in London.
• but: Ann had just got home when I phoned her. She had been in London.

• a) You can use the past perfect continuous to say how long something had been happening before something else happened.
• I/You/We/they/he/she/it had been doing
• -the football match had to be stopped.They had been playing for half an hour when there was a terrible storm.
• -Ken had been smoking for 30 years.When he finally gave up it.

• b) The past perfect continuous is the of the present perfect continuous :

• Present past
• How long have you been waiting? How long have you been waiting when the bus (until now) finally came?
• He's go out of breath.He has been running. He was out of breath.He had been running.

c) Compare the past perfect continuous and the past continuous
• -when I looked out of the window it had been raining.(it wasn't rainig when I looked out it had stopped.)
• -when I looked out of the window İt was raining.(Rain was falling at the time I looked out.)

• a) We use will be doing (Future cotinuous)to say that we will be in the middle of doing something at a certain time in the future.
• -The football match begins at 7:30 and ands at 9:15 so during this time for example at 8:30 -Tom will be watching the match
• -You will recognise her when you see her.She will be wearing a yellow hat.
• Compare will be doing with the other continous forms:
• -Tom works every morning from 9 o'clock until midday.So:
• -At 10 o'clock yesterday he was working.(past continious.)
• -It is ten o'clock now he is working.(present cotinuous.)
• -At ten o'clock tomorrow he will be working.

• b) You can also use will be doing in another way:
• To talk about thingswhich are already planned or decided:
• -I will be going to the city centre later can I yet you anything
• With this meaning will be doing is similar to am doing.
• -I am going to city centre later.
• We often use will be -ing ?to ask about people plans esspeacially when we want somthing or want someone to the something.
• -Will you be using your bike this evening ? No you can take it.
• -Will you be passing the post office when you go out? Yes ,why
• c) We use will have done (future perfect) to say that something will already have happened before a certain time in the future.
• -Tom's football match ends at 9:15 So after this time for example at 9:30 the match will have finished.
• -Next year is Ted and Amy's 25th wedding anniversary.They will have been married for 25 years.
• -We are late I expect the film will already have started by the time we get to the cinema.
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