A relatıve clause adds extra informatıon abaut are of the nouns in the main clause.
Eg: The teacher who I gave my book will visit me.
People who live in the city .
I know the man who teachers English.
a)Defining (Restrictive) Clauses: to give essential information in order to identif what/who you are talkıng about.
Eg: The house has just been sold. “ Which house are you talkıng about?”
The house which I showed you last week has just been sold.
This is the whom/that we chose for the job.
The car which/that he wants to buy is very old.
b)Non-defining(non-restrictive)Clause:to give extra ınformatıon not essentıal ınformatıon, for identifying what you’re talking about .
Eg:Columbus , (who discovered America) was a spaniar.
Columbus was a spaniard and discovered America
Mrs.Parter’s house has just been sold .
Mrs.Parter’s house , which has been for sale for two years has just been sold .
Noteon’t use that at the beginning of non-defining clause.Use who (whom,where) or which instead of that.
Whıch and that refer to thıngs
Whıch is more formal than that
Eg:the painting that I bought is on the table.
My father didn’t like the pen that I bought.
*We can also use that to refer people in speech .
Eg:A person that knows Englısh can easily find a job .
The man that the dedective was chasing was a spy .
The story whıch was a long and sad bored as.
The table whıch my father bought is very big .
Who and whom:refer to people
Whom is used informan speech writing in English
Who is used instead of who and informal .
Eg:the man whom you met yesterday was a doctor .
I know the whom you danced with.
*Whom is used after preposition in formal speech.
Eg:Ernest Hamingway is the writer abaut WHOM I talked.
I was waıtıng for the doctor.He didn’t come on time.
The doctor for whom I aws waıtıng didn’t come on time
WHOSE: OF WHOM
This hause , whose owner was killed last year , is going to be sold
Ali whose mother is very ill will not come .
Leaving out (omitting) relativepronouns
*We can not omit relative pronoun in non-defining clauses.
Eg:Pablo Picasso, who died in 1373 , was a painter and scupta are object clauses.
Eg:The doctor who I spoke to told me not to worry .
*We can omit the relative pronoun after a superlatıve .
Eg:That was the best meal that I’ve ever enter .
*We can not omit the relative pronoun in defining clauses which are subject clauses.
Eg:The doctor who treated me told me not to worry.
I found the ox which tossed the dog which worried the cat which caught the rat which ate the cheese which Aylin bought.
Aylinin aldığı peyniri yiyen fareyi yakalayan kediye musallat olan köpeğe toslayan boğayı buldum.
The book which you’re reading is under the chair which my father is sitting.
Relative Clauses 2 preposition+whom-whıch+proposition
1-Note the changes made when sentences are combined sing a relative clause.
Eg:A woman came into the room.You recognized her.The woman who/that you recognized came into the room.
Eg:A man called the police.His wallet was stolen.The man whose wallet was stolen called the police.
A student writes well,I read her composition.The student whose composition I read writes well.
You gave a book me.İt is very useful.
The book which you gave me is very useful.
I was waiting for the doctor.He didn’t arrive on time.
The doctor for whom I waiting didn’t arrive on time.
You mended the chair.İt is broken again.
The chair which you mended is broken again.
Note:That articles are often changed eg. form alon to when sentences are combined.
Eg:I saw a in our shop.She is a nurse.The who I saw in our shop is a nurse.
A doctor treated me.She told me not to worry.
The doctor who treated me told me not to worry.
A went to İstanbul.You helped her last year.The who you helped last year went to İstanbul.
NOTEthis common error
The women (who) you recognized come into her
*These are clauses with an-ing form verb.
Eg:The who is sitting next to me is Marry.
The sitting next to me is Marry.
The boy who is playing the piano is Ben.
The boy playing the piano is Ben.
Nominal relative Clauses
*These can be used as subject or object.They are co with WHAT here means the things which.
I didn’t do what he wanted me.
She knows what I think of her.
What he wants is a succesful engineer.
I thanked the woman She helped me
I thanked the woman who helped me.
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